#22: If anyone is committing a robbery and is caught, then he shall be put to death. Note that this compilation includes only a sampling of the laws and that 102. If a man has stolen goods from a temple, or house, he shall be put to death; and he that has received the stolen property from him shall be put to death. 124. everlasting kingdom, with foundations laid strong as those of heaven and earth. equivalent to the harvests of the adjoining fields. . 103. I, Hammurabi, have been called by the great deities. 260. the sons of the female slave shall share equally with the sons of the first If a father give a present to his daughter–either marriageable or a prostitute unmarriageable)–and then die, then she is to receive a portion as a child from the paternal estate, and enjoy its usufruct so long as she lives. . If he turn it over for safe keeping without witness or contract, and if he to whom it was given deny it, then he has no legitimate claim. 46. If the cultivator do not plant corn or sesame in the field, the debtor’s contract is not weakened. 2. If any one who has not lost his goods state that they have been lost, and make false claims: if he claim his goods and amount of injury before God, even though he has not lost them, he shall be fully compensated for all his loss claimed. in the world. If a man, who had adopted a son and reared him, founded a household, and had children, wish to put this adopted son out, then this son shall not simply go his way. If a free man has sexual relations with his daughter, that man shall Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. If any one buy a male or female slave, and a third party claim it, the seller is liable for the claim. If he put out the eye of a freed man, or break the bone of a freed man, he shall pay one gold mina. If a father devote a temple-maid or temple-virgin to God and give her no present: if then the father die, she shall receive the third of a child’s portion from the inheritance of her father’s house, and enjoy its usufruct so long as she lives. 150. If a free person steals sacred property from a temple or palace, that Here are some of the laws of ancient Babylon that King Hammurabi wrote down. If the father did not acknowledge the sons of the female slave as his If any one fail to meet a claim for debt, and sell himself, his wife, his son, and daughter for money or give them away to forced labor: they shall work for three years in the house of the man who bought them, or the proprietor, and in the fourth year they shall be set free. The Code of Hammurabi is the longest surviving text from the Old Babylonian period. made Babylon the foremost city-state in all the earth and the capital of an If an artizan has undertaken to rear a child and teaches him his craft, he can not be demanded back. divide any crops that can be salvaged according to the proportion stipulated I am the king who is first of all kings; my ability has no rival. 111. of Mesopotamian Documents. If, however, the father while still living did not say to the sons of the maid-servant: “My sons,” and then the father dies, then the sons of the maid-servant shall not share with the sons of the wife, but the freedom of the maid and her sons shall be granted. If a man take a wife, and she be seized by disease, if he then desire to take a second wife he shall not put away his wife, who has been attacked by disease, but he shall keep her in the house which he has built and support her so long as she lives. If a free person's ox happens to gore another free person on the street HAMMURABI'S CODE OF LAWS (circa 1780 B.C.) . If a man betroth a girl to his son, but his son has not known her, and if then he defile her, he shall pay her half a gold mina, and compensate her for all that she brought out of her father’s house. 27. 3. . 64. 138. 14. 229. If any one strike the body of a man higher in rank than he, he shall receive sixty blows with an ox-whip in public. monument. 115. 227. See your Stokstad book, page 38, for a description of the code and the Stele of Hammurabi on which it is inscribed. 40. . 282. . up, then if the ox gores another free person so that the person dies, the If after the woman had entered the man’s house, both contracted a debt, both must pay the merchant. 144. Sacred Texts Ancient Near East Index Previous Next 200. 156. If any one give another silver, gold, or anything else to keep, he shall show everything to some witness, draw up a contract, and then hand it over for safe keeping. If a man has stolen a child, he shall be put to death. If a physician make a large incision with the operating knife, and kill him, or open a tumor with the operating knife, and cut out the eye, his hands shall be cut off. The code is also one of the earliest examples of the "presumption of innocence" (innocent until proven otherwise).It suggests that both the accused and accuser have the opportunity to provide evidence. of silver. If she has committed adultery, then she shall be executed by being thrown an inquiry shall be held. She shall keep the house in order, bring up the children, and not sell the house-hold utensils. 187. eye of another free person, that person's eye shall be put out. W. King's translation. 122. 62. circa 1780B.C. If any one hire a skilled artizan, he shall pay as wages of the . . If any one bring an accusation against a man, and the accused go to the river and leap into the river, if he sink in the river his accuser shall take possession of his house. that another free person may rent and cultivate it. If he was a free-born man, the son of the merchant shall be put to death; if it was a slave, he shall pay one-third of a mina of gold, and all that the master of the prisoner gave he shall forfeit. If a free person buys or receives in pawn anything from another free 2. 147. 230. 55. . By the word of Marduk my lord, let no one mar the figures or words on my at a higher rate, that merchant shall forfeit both the capital and the interest. 263. 21. 23. If a free person wishes to pawn anything, that person is responsible 196. If any one lose an article, and find it in the possession of another: if the person in whose possession the thing is found say “A merchant sold it to me, I paid for it before witnesses,” and if the owner of the thing say, “I will bring witnesses who know my property,” then shall the purchaser bring the merchant who sold it to him, and the witnesses before whom he bought it, and the owner shall bring witnesses who can identify his property. But the owner of the house shall try to follow up and recover his property, and take it away from the thief. 126. 3. 268. If he be a freed man he shall give her one-third of a mina of gold. 124. 1780 B.C.E., is one of the earliest sets of laws found and one of the best preserved examples of this type of document from ancient Mesopotamia.The code is a collection of the legal decisions made by Hammurabi during his reign as king of Babylon, inscribed on a stele. shall pay one-half kilogram of silver to the relatives of the deceased. 237. 141. she shall receive fifty ka of corn at the harvest. The Code of Hammurabi at Sacred-texts.com, L.W. marry another woman and keep his first wife in his house as a slave. 154. He who buys the utensils of the children of a widow shall lose his money, and the goods shall return to their owners. If the surgeon set a broken bone of a free person, that surgeon shall 118. . If a . 52. If a man give his wife a field, garden, and house and a deed therefor, if then after the death of her husband the sons raise no claim, then the mother may bequeath all to one of her sons whom she prefers, and need leave nothing to his brothers. If she is guiltless, and there is no fault on her part, but he leaves and neglects her, then no guilt attaches to this woman, she shall take her dowry and go back to her father’s house. 145. 226. The earliest, created by the Sumerian ruler Ur-Nammu of the city of Ur, dates all the way back to the 21st century B.C., and evidence also shows that the Sumerian Code of Lipit-Ishtar of Isin was drawn up nearly two centuries before Hammurabi came to power. 228. Today, Hammurabi (fl. is the mother of sons, after the death of his father, that man shall lose 37. How does Religion Spread Around the World . Hammurabi’s Code is the earliest form of law that we are able to read and study because, in 1901, a French expedition to Mesopotamia uncovered a copy of the Babylonian king’s laws. by witnesses, that person is a fence and shall be executed. If a free person puts out the If any one give over a field to a gardener, for him to plant it as a garden, if he work at it, and care for it for four years, in the fifth year the owner and the gardener shall divide it, the owner taking his part in charge. If any one bring an accusation against a man, and the accused go to the river and leap into the river, if he sink in the river his accuser shall ... 3. If he have no money to repay, then he shall pay in corn or sesame in place of the money as rent for what he received from the merchant, according to the royal tariff. If any one hire an ox for threshing, the amount of the hire is twenty ka of corn. person shall be executed, along with anyone who purchased the stolen property. 7. The sixth Babylonian king, Hammurabi, enacted the code. 2. the deceased. 11. . If a man’s wife be surprised (in flagrante delicto) with another man, both shall be tied and thrown into the water, but the husband may pardon his wife and the king his slaves. on my monument. 195. 57. 1. If he take the seed-corn for himself, and do not use the yoke of oxen, he shall compensate him for the amount of the seed-corn. If a free person puts out the eye or breaks the bone of a civil-servant, Almost completely preserved, the code is far more significant in legal history than any of its forerunners. King, translator The Code of Hammurabi: Hammurabi's Code of Laws: Paragraphs 100-199 Sacred Texts Ancient Near East Index Previous Next If any one bring an accusation against a man, and the ac-cused go to the river and leap into the river, if he sink in the river his … If any one receive into his house a runaway male or female slave of the court, or of a freedman, and does not bring it out at the public proclamation of the major domus, the master of the house shall be put to death. The sixth Babylonian king, Hammurabi, enacted the code, and partial copies exist on a human-sized stone stele and various clay tablets. If he kill the cattle or sheep that were given to him, he shall compensate the owner with cattle for cattle and sheep for sheep. If any one steal the minor son of another, he shall be put to death. 171. 178. If any one, who has brought chattels into his father-in-law’s house, and has paid the purchase-money, looks for another wife, and says to his father-in-law: “I do not want your daughter,” the girl’s father may keep all that he had brought. If a man is taken prisoner in war, and there is a sustenance in his house, but his wife leave house and court, and go to another house: because this wife did not keep her court, and went to another house, she shall be judicially condemned and thrown into the water. The Code of Hammurabi is often cited as the oldest written laws on record, but they were predated by at least two other ancient codes of conduct from the Middle East. (He retained the original If any one hire oxen, cart and driver, he shall pay one hundred and eighty ka of corn per day. 14. If a merchant entrust money to an agent (broker) for some investment, and the broker suffer a loss in the place to which he goes, he shall make good the capital to the merchant. Let these curses be unalterable, and let them quickly overtake the kings shall amount to one-half kilogram of silver. 158. 30. 233. If a man take a wife and this woman give her husband a maid-servant, and she bear him children, but this man wishes to take another wife, this shall not be permitted to him; he shall not take a second wife. Hammurabi also established a set of laws that is today called the Code of Hammurabi. We call this Hammurabi's Code. shall be executed. If any one have a claim for corn or money upon another and imprison him; if the prisoner die in prison a natural death, the case shall go no further. If a chieftain or a man is captured on the “Way of the King” (in war), and a merchant buy him free, and bring him back to his place; if he have the means in his house to buy his freedom, he shall buy himself free: if he have nothing in his house with which to buy himself free, he shall be bought free by the temple of his community; if there be nothing in the temple with which to buy him free, the court shall buy his freedom. 232. If a widow, whose children are not grown, wishes to enter another house (remarry), she shall not enter it without the knowledge of the judge. For the complete list of 282 laws in the original If a veterinary surgeon perform a serious operation on an ass or an ox, and cure it, the owner shall pay the surgeon one-sixth of a shekel as a fee. If any one hire a field laborer, he shall pay him eight gur of corn per year. Hammurabi’s Code is known as the oldest collection of codified law ever to exist. The merchant is then proved to be a thief and shall be put to death. If any one find runaway male or female slaves in the open country and bring them to their masters, the master of the slaves shall pay him two shekels of silver. A partial copy exists on a 2.25-metre-tall (7.4 ft) stone stele. If any one buy a male or female slave, and before a month has elapsed the benu-disease be developed, he shall return the slave to the seller, and receive the money which he had paid. The following are just some of the laws contained in the Code of Hammurabi. "Retold in English" by Stan Rummel, Excerpted from the Original CODE OF LAWS. [Here a portion of the text is missing, apparently comprising thirty-four paragraphs.]. If any one hire a day laborer, he shall pay him from the New Year until the fifth month (April to August, when days are long and the work hard) six gerahs in money per day; from the sixth month to the end of the year he shall give him five gerahs per day. 190. 235. It was the punishment given even for “the theft of temple or palace property or when a runaway slave is given refuge,” van de Mier… Hammurabi studied existing rules and put together a single code of law for everyone in his empire to follow. mine, governing the world in justice. 138. If, while on the journey, an enemy take away from him anything that he had, the broker shall swear by God and be free of obligation. or . If a free person is in debt and loses a crop because of a natural disaster, be liable for the damages. The Code of Hammurabi was written down on clay tablets and etched into stone. If a man bring a charge against one’s wife, but she is not surprised with another man, she must take an oath and then may return to her house. If persons are stolen, then shall the community and . 274. and the father acknowledges the sons of the female slave as his own, then 167. 43. The son of a paramour in the palace service, or of a prostitute, can not be demanded back. 192. person who is a minor, or from a free person's slave, without a contract signed If the thief is not caught, the city of the free person who has been robbed be paid forty grams of silver. If a physician make a large incision in the slave of a freed man, and kill him, he shall replace the slave with another slave. If a physician heal the broken bone or diseased soft part of a man, the patient shall pay the physician five shekels in money. If any one hire a ferryboat, he shall pay three gerahs in money per day. If fire break out in a house, and some one who comes to put it out cast his eye upon the property of the owner of the house, and take the property of the master of the house, he shall be thrown into that self-same fire. . 123. If any one ensnare another, putting a ban upon him, but he can not prove it, then he that ensnared him shall be put to death. 35. pay one mina of silver to their relatives. The Code of Hammurabi (also known as the Codex Hammurabi and Hammurabi’s Code), created ca. If the wife of one man on account of another man has their mates (her husband and the other man’s wife) murdered, both of them shall be impaled. . 18. 282. If the free person's ox is a habitual gorer, and the free person has 221. If a man hire a sailor, he shall pay him six gur of corn per year. (by cutting the skin, or perhaps hair.). 20. 176. has, she may take her dowry and return to her father's house. If a free person rents a field to a cultivator and is paid in advance, 34. If the robber is not caught, then shall he who was robbed claim under oath the amount of his loss; then shall the community, and . Hammurabi then created his code of laws, which consists of 282 laws, in the year 1750 BC. shall pay twelve times the amount of the damages awarded in the verdict. His adoptive father shall give him of his wealth one-third of a child’s portion, and then he may go. 6. 140. If a man have no claim on another for corn and money, and try to demand it by force, he shall pay one-third of a mina of silver in every case. If she enter another house the judge shall examine the state of the house of her first husband. 209. 195. If any one ensnare another, putting a ban upon him, but he can not prove it, then he that ensnared him shall be put to death. 251. 224. If a surgeon performs a major operation which saves the life of a free If a slave say to his master: “You are not my master,” if they convict him his master shall cut off his ear. If he be guilty of a grave fault, which should rightfully deprive him of the filial relationship, the father shall forgive him the first time; but if he be guilty of a grave fault a second time the father may deprive his son of all filial relation. If any one buy the field, garden, and house of a chieftain, man, or one subject to quit-rent, his contract tablet of sale shall be broken (declared invalid) and he loses his money. If a slave says to the master, "you are not my master," the If any one steal a shadduf (used to draw water from the river or canal) or a plow, he shall pay three shekels in money. 265. 162. If a chieftain or a man leave his house, garden, and field and hires it out, and some one else takes possession of his house, garden, and field and uses it for three years: if the first owner return and claims his house, garden, and field, it shall not be given to him, but he who has taken possession of it and used it shall continue to use it. 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